is about making sure that people have the capability to use the internet to do things that benefit them day to day”

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have become part of people’s daily life and nowadays affect (directly or indirectly) nearly all spheres of people’s life, therefore in the research papers show (S.Molnar 2003) that a digital exclusion closely mirrors the structures and dynamics of social exclusion.
Significant inequalities in internet access and broadband internet connection in the EU27 and the UK have huge impact on digital literacy in society. A 2008 report by Oxford Internet Institute observed the phenomenon of ‘dual exclusion’ – the ways in which structural inequalities like social class combined with ICT-based inequalities reinforce the process of deprivation, such as; low income, unemployment, poor education, ill health and social isolation.
A study on digital participation and social exclusion in Scotland highlighted a significant correlation between digital exclusion and a wide range of factors associated with social exclusion, including low levels of social participation; poverty and mental health issues (White, 2016).
The evidence shows a ‘digital divide’ is driven by four main factors: geography, age educational status and income. However the access to ICTs is only one component of digital inclusion. Equally the ICT usage capability (acquisition of the necessary digital and media competences required to use ICTs effectively) and quality of use (the opportunities available to people to apply these competences in ways that add value to their lives) influences the disparities in digital literacy among society. Significant numbers of people remain at the margins of the ‘knowledge society’. Key obstacles can be identified such as: cost; peer pressure; social context; difficulties accessing computers; a lack of relevance of computer technology to daily lives (Facer and Selwyn, 2007). Similarly, social media has created additional problems for particular excluded and at risk people, for example people with disabilities; immigrants and people from ethnic minorities (Redeker 2008).
In response to this situation, successive policy measures have tried to reduce the ‘digital divide’ as well as address the processes of ‘dual exclusion’ through which social exclusion generally is reinforced by digital exclusion:

Cool Timeline


Digital Agenda for Europe

‘Digital Agenda for Europe’ (DAE) – one of the strands of the Europe 2020 growth strategy. DAE set three targets connected to broadband: to bring ‘basic broadband’ to all Europeans by 2013; access to ‘fast broadband’ speeds for all Europeans by 2020; to bring ‘ultra-fast broadband’ speed connections for at least 50% of European households by 2020.


Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs

The Commission adopted a digital single market strategy; a key objective of to undertake a review of the progress made towards completing the digital single market. To support the objectives of ensuring that ‘usage’ and ‘quality of use’ are also addressed, as well as access, the Commission also introduced a number of initiatives to improve ICT skills in the workforce and, to increase the supply of ICT specialists, including a Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs.


Skills Agenda for Europe Agreement

The Commission adopted a new Skills Agenda for Europe Agreement number: which seeks to promote a number of actions to ensure that the right training, the right skills and the right support is available to people in the EU so that they are equipped with skills that are needed in a modern working environment, including the promotion of digital skills.


EU 2020 Priorities

i.e.: smart growth – developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation, and inclusive growth – fostering a high-employment economy delivering economic, social and territorial cohesion


Agenda for New Skills and Jobs

‘Agenda for New Skills and Jobs’, with its focus on ‘flexicurity’, intra-EU labour mobility and a better match between labour supply and demand, with its emphasis on providing innovative education, training, and employment opportunities for deprived communities


Shaping Digital Europe’s Future

‘Shaping Digital Europe’s Future’, the Commission focuses on three key objectives to ensure that digital solutions help Europe to pursue its own way towards a digital transformation that works for the benefit of people through respecting the European values: technology that works for people; fair and competitive economy and an open, democratic and sustainable democracy.